Influence of charge materials on steel properties: scrap metal, HBI, pellets, iron, ferroalloys, etc.;
Modern equipment producing clean steel.
Operating practices in clean steel making: when and where steel should be killed; when and where steel should be alloyed; duration and sequence of furnace and ladle operations; steel stirring; next unit transfer of liquid steel to; ladle design and operating procedures; properties of various steel making fluxes and applications; pouring practices, heat treatment.
Control methods of steel making process parameters, metal, slag analysis, necessary to make decisions and operate the process;
Impurity impact on steel properties: tensile strength; forming property – considerable crack-free plastic deformation; ductility; weldability; cracking resistance; stain resistance; fatigue strength, etc. Positive impact of additions on steel properties;
Principles and practices in ensuring low and ultra-low impurity levels: carbon, sulphur, phosphorus, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, non-ferrous and nonmetallic inclusions, etc.
Impact of refractory lining and additives on steel making process flow parameters;
IPO “Association of Steelmakers”